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Dr. Nataliya Tsud

MSB Scientist in Charge

tsud@mbox.troja.mff.cuni.cz
+39-040-375-8095
+39-040-375-8060
Trieste
orc_id ORCID 0000-0001-7439-7731
researcher_id Researcher ID B-5994-2017
scopus_id Scopus ID 6602122009
people

Publications

Year 2020

  1. Köbl, J; Wechsler, D; Kataev, EY; Williams, FJ; Tsud, N; Franchi, S; Steinrück, H-P; Lytken, O
    Adsorption of phenylphosphonic acid on rutile TiO2(110)
    Surf. Sci. 698 : Art. No. 121612 (6 pages), 2020.
    doi:10.1016/j.susc.2020.121612 (abstract link)  PDF ISI ID:000541373200002 BibTeX & \bibitem
  2. Yalovega, G; Semenistaya, T; Shmatko, V; Kremennaya, М.; Tsud, N
    Investigation of the Co/polyacrylonitrile nanocomposite electronic structure: X-ray spectroscopy analysis
    Radiat. Phys. Chem. 175 : Art. No. 108256 (5 pages), 2020.
    doi:10.1016/j.radphyschem.2019.04.006 (abstract link)  PDF ISI ID:000543372500041 BibTeX & \bibitem
  3. Bertram, M; Prössl, C; Ronovský, M; Knöppel, J; Matvija, P; Fusek, L; Skála, T; Tsud, N; Kastenmeier, M; Matolín, V; Mayrhofer, KJJ; Johánek, V; Mysliveček, J; Cherevko, S; Lykhach, Y; Brummel, O; Libuda, J
    Cobalt Oxide-Supported Pt Electrocatalysts: Intimate Correlation between Particle Size, Electronic Metal–Support Interaction and Stability
    J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 11 :  (7 pages), 2020.
    doi:10.1021/acs.jpclett.0c02233 (abstract link)  PDF ISI ID:000577152900064 BibTeX & \bibitem
  4. Lykhach, Y; Skála, T; Neitzel, A; Tsud, N; Beranová, K; Prince, KC; Matolín, V; Libuda, J
    Nanoscale architecture of ceria-based model catalysts: Pt‒Co nanostructures on well-ordered CeO 2 (111) thin films
    Chin. J. Catal 41 :  (13 pages), 2020.
    doi:10.1016/S1872-2067(19)63462-5 (abstract link)  PDF ISI ID:000531430200010 BibTeX & \bibitem
  5. Bercha, S; Bhasker-Ranganath, S; Zheng, X; Beranová, K; Vorokhta, M; Acres, RG; Skála, T; Matolín, V; Prince, KC; Xu, Y; Tsud, N
    Adsorption structure of adenine on cerium oxide
    Appl. Surf. Sci. 530 : Art. No. 147257 (9 pages), 2020.
    doi:10.1016/j.apsusc.2020.147257 (abstract link)  PDF ISI ID:000562341900003 BibTeX & \bibitem
  6. Kondrat, O; Holomb, R; Mitsa, A; Veres, M; Csik, A; Takáts, V; Duchoň, T; Veltruská, K; Vondráček, M; Tsud, N; Mitsa, V; Matolín, V; Prince, KC
    Reversible laser-assisted structural modification of the surface of As-rich nanolayers for active photonics media
    Appl. Surf. Sci. 518 : Art. No. 146240 (7 pages), 2020.
    doi:10.1016/j.apsusc.2020.146240 (abstract link)  PDF ISI ID:000531747600007 BibTeX & \bibitem

Year 2019

  1. Chundak, M; Khalakhan, I; Kúš, P; Duchoň, T; Potin, V; Cacucci, A; Tsud, N; Matolín, V; Veltruská, K
    Tailoring of highly porous SnO2 and SnO2-Pd thin films
    Mater. Chem. Phys. 232 :  (8 pages), 2019.
    doi:10.1016/j.matchemphys.2018.11.022 (abstract link)  PDF ISI ID:000490045800063 BibTeX & \bibitem
  2. Kosto, Y; Zanut, A; Franchi, S; Yakovlev, Y; Khalakhan, I; Matolín, V; Prince, KC; Valenti, G; Paolucci, F; Tsud, N
    Electrochemical activity of the polycrystalline cerium oxide films for hydrogen peroxide detection
    Appl. Surf. Sci. 488 :  (9 pages), 2019.
    doi:10.1016/j.apsusc.2019.05.205 (abstract link)  PDF ISI ID:000472476200039 BibTeX & \bibitem
  3. Lykhach, Y; Piccinin, S; Skála, T; Bertram, M; Tsud, N; Brummel, O; Farnesi Camellone, M; Beranová, K; Neitzel, A; Fabris, S; Prince, KC; Matolín, V; Libuda, J
    Quantitative Analysis of the Oxidation State of Cobalt Oxides by Resonant Photoemission Spectroscopy
    J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 10 :  (8 pages), 2019.
    doi:10.1021/acs.jpclett.9b02398 (abstract link)  PDF ISI ID:000492425100023 BibTeX & \bibitem
  4. Cassidy, A; Tsud, N; Bercha, S; Feyer, V; Prince, KC; Plekan, O
    Adsorption of 5-Fluorouracil on Au(111) and Cu(111) surfaces
    AIP Advances 9 8 : Art. No. 085318 (10 pages), 2019.
    doi:10.1063/1.5108801 (abstract link)  PDF ISI ID:000483883400045 BibTeX & \bibitem
  5. Kondrat, OB; Holomb, RM; Csik, A; Takats, V; Veres, M; Feher, A; Duchoň, T; Veltruská, K; Vondráček, M; Tsud, N; Matolín, V; Prince, KC; Mitsa, VM
    Reversible structural changes of in situ prepared ­As40 Se60 nanolayers studied by XPS spectroscopy
    Appl. Nanosci. 9 :  (8 pages), 2019.
    doi:10.1007/s13204-018-0771-3 (abstract link)  PDF ISI ID:000477671900041 BibTeX & \bibitem
  6. Lykhach, Y; Kubát, J; Neitzel, A; Tsud, N; Vorokhta, M; Skála, T; Dvořák, F; Kosto, Y; Prince, KC; Matolín, V; Johánek, V; Mysliveček, J; Libuda, J
    Charge transfer and spillover phenomena in ceria-supported iridium catalysts: A model study
    The Journal of Chemical Physics 151 20 : Art. No. 204703 (14 pages), 2019.
    doi:10.1063/1.5126031 (abstract link)  PDF ISI ID:000504063200021 BibTeX & \bibitem
  7. Schmeißer, D; Henkel, K; Pożarowska, E; Kegelmann, L; Tsud, N; Kot, M
    Point Defect-Mediated Interface Formation and Appearance of a Cooper Minimum for AlOx Atomic-Layer-Deposited Films on CH3NH3PbI3
    J. Phys. Chem. C 123 :  (9 pages), 2019.
    doi:10.1021/acs.jpcc.9b05282 (abstract link)  PDF ISI ID:000488334700008 BibTeX & \bibitem
  8. Brummel, O; Lykhach, Y; Vorokhta, M; Šmíd, B; Stumm, C; Faisal, F; Skála, T; Tsud, N; Neitzel, A; Beranová, K; Prince, KC; Matolín, V; Libuda, J
    Redox Behavior of Pt/Co3O4(111) Model Electrocatalyst Studied by X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Coupled with an Electrochemical Cell
    J. Phys. Chem. C 123 :  (13 pages), 2019.
    doi:10.1021/acs.jpcc.8b08890 (abstract link)  PDF ISI ID:000464768600031 BibTeX & \bibitem
  9. Johánek, V; Nehasil, V; Skála, T; Tsud, N
    Carbon Chain Length Dependence of Graphene Formation via Thermal Decomposition of Alkenes on Pt(111)
    J. Phys. Chem. C 123 :  (11 pages), 2019.
    doi:10.1021/acs.jpcc.8b07165 (abstract link)  PDF ISI ID:000463844500040 BibTeX & \bibitem
  10. Kot, M; Henkel, K; Müller, K; Kegelmann, L; Albrecht, S; Tsud, N; Kúš, P; Matolínová, I; Schmeißer, D
    Al2O3‐Atomic Layer Deposited Films on CH3NH3PbI3: Intrinsic Defects and Passivation Mechanisms
    Energy Technol. 7 11 : Art. No. 1900975 (10 pages), 2019.
    doi:10.1002/ente.201900975 (abstract link)  PDF ISI ID:000484850700001 BibTeX & \bibitem
  11. Shkvarin, AS; Merentsov, AI; Tsud, N; Titov, AN
    Chemical bonds in intercalation compounds CuxTiCh2 (Ch = S, Te)
    The Journal of Chemical Physics 151 23 : Art. No. 234701 (9 pages), 2019.
    doi:10.1063/1.5128299 (abstract link)  PDF ISI ID:000513157600028 BibTeX & \bibitem

Year 2018

  1. Faisal, F; Bertram, M; Stumm, C; Wähler, T; Schuster, R; Lykhach, Y; Neitzel, A; Skála, T; Tsud, N; Beranová, K; Prince, KC; Matolín, V; Brummel, O; Libuda, J
    Electrocatalysis with Atomically Defined Model Systems: Metal–Support Interactions between Pt Nanoparticles and Co3O4(111) under Ultrahigh Vacuum and in Liquid Electrolytes
    J. Phys. Chem. C 122 :  (13 pages), 2018.
    doi:10.1021/acs.jpcc.8b05594 (abstract link)  PDF ISI ID:000444920900025 BibTeX & \bibitem
  2. Kot, M; Kegelmann, L; Das, C; Kus, P; Tsud, N; Matolinova, I; Albrecht, S; Matolin, V; Schmeisser, D
    Room-Temperature Atomic-Layer-Deposited Al2O3 Improves the Efficiency of Perovskite Solar Cells over Time
    ChemSusChem 11 :  (9 pages), 2018.
    doi:10.1002/cssc.201801434 (abstract link)  PDF ISI ID:000448064300012 BibTeX & \bibitem
  3. Yoshitake, M; Nemšák, S; Skála, T; Tsud, N; Matolín, V; Prince, KC
    The influence of Si in Ni on the interface modification and the band alignment between Ni and alumina
    Appl. Surf. Sci. 442 :  (6 pages), 2018.
    doi:10.1016/j.apsusc.2018.02.091 (abstract link)  PDF ISI ID:000428294500020 BibTeX & \bibitem
  4. Acres, RG; Cheng, X; Beranová, K; Bercha, S; Skála, T; Matolín, V; Xu, Y; Prince, KC; Tsud, N
    An experimental and theoretical study of adenine adsorption on Au(111)
    Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 20 :  (11 pages), 2018.
    doi:10.1039/C7CP08102B (abstract link)  PDF ISI ID:000425107800008 BibTeX & \bibitem
  5. Holomb, R; Kondrat, O; Mitsa, V; Veres, M; Czitrovszky, A; Feher, A; Tsud, N; Vondráček, M; Veltruská, K; Matolín, V; Prince, KC
    Super-bandgap light stimulated reversible transformation and laser-driven mass transport at the surface of As2S3 chalcogenide nanolayers studied in situ
    The Journal of Chemical Physics 149 21 : Art. No. 214702 (11 pages), 2018.
    doi:10.1063/1.5053228 (abstract link)  PDF ISI ID:000452539400021 BibTeX & \bibitem
  6. Schwarz, M; Faisal, F; Mohr, S; Hohner, C; Werner, K; Xu, T; Skála, T; Tsud, N; Prince, KC; Matolín, V; Lykhach, Y; Libuda, J
    Structure-Dependent Dissociation of Water on Cobalt Oxide
    J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 9 :  (7 pages), 2018.
    doi:10.1021/acs.jpclett.8b01033 (abstract link)  PDF ISI ID:000435026100008 BibTeX & \bibitem
  7. Faisal, F; Stumm, C; Bertram, M; Waidhas, F; Lykhach, Y; Cherevko, S; Xiang, F; Ammon, M; Vorokhta, M; Šmíd, B; Skála, T; Tsud, N; Neitzel, A; Beranová, K; Prince, KC; Geiger, S; Kasian, O; Wähler, T; Schuster, R; Schneider, MA; Matolín, V; Mayrhofer, KJJ; Brummel, O; Libuda, J
    Electrifying model catalysts for understanding electrocatalytic reactions in liquid electrolytes
    Nat. Mater. 17 :  (7 pages), 2018.
    doi:10.1038/s41563-018-0088-3 (abstract link)  PDF ISI ID:000436341400012 BibTeX & \bibitem
  8. Lykhach, Y; Faisal, F; Skála, T; Neitzel, A; Tsud, N; Vorokhta, M; Dvořák, F; Beranová, K; Kosto, Y; Prince, KC; Matolín, V; Libuda, J
    Interplay between the metal-support interaction and stability in Pt/Co3O4(111) model catalysts
    J. Mater. Chem. A 6 :  (9 pages), 2018.
    doi:10.1039/c8ta08142e (abstract link)  PDF ISI ID:000451738200074 BibTeX & \bibitem

Year 2017

  1. Khalakhan, I; Vorokhta, M; Kúš, P; Dopita, M; Václavů, M; Fiala, R; Tsud, N; Skála, T; Matolín, V
    In situ probing of magnetron sputtered Pt-Ni alloy fuel cell catalysts during accelerated durability test using EC-AFM
    Electrochim. Acta 245 :  (10 pages), 2017.
    doi:10.1016/j.electacta.2017.05.202 (abstract link)  PDF ISI ID:000406762700084 BibTeX & \bibitem
  2. Monai, M; Montini, T; Melchionna, M; Duchoň, T; Kúš, P; Chen, C; Tsud, N; Nasi, L; Prince, KC; Veltruská, K; Matolín, V; Khader, MM; Gorte, RJ; Fornasiero, P
    The effect of sulfur dioxide on the activity of hierarchical Pd-based catalysts in methane combustion
    Appl. Catal. B-Environ. 202 :  (12 pages), 2017.
    doi:10.1016/j.apcatb.2016.09.016 (abstract link)  PDF ISI ID:000388052100008 BibTeX & \bibitem
  3. Franke, M; Wechsler, D; Tariq, Q; Röckert, M; Zhang, L; Thakur, PK; Tsud, N; Bercha, S; Prince, K; Lee, T-L; Steinrück, H-P; Lytken, O
    Interfacial interactions between CoTPP molecules and MgO(100) thin films
    Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 19 :  (5 pages), 2017.
    doi:10.1039/C7CP00442G (abstract link)  PDF ISI ID:000401022300058 BibTeX & \bibitem
  4. Lykhach, Y; Figueroba, A; Skála, T; Duchoň, T; Tsud, N; Aulická, M; Neitzel, A; Veltruská, K; Prince, KC; Matolín, V; Neyman, KM; Libuda, J
    Redox-mediated conversion of atomically dispersed platinum to sub-nanometer particles
    J. Mater. Chem. A 5 :  (12 pages), 2017.
    doi:10.1039/c7ta02204b (abstract link)  PDF ISI ID:000401316100051 BibTeX & \bibitem
  5. Wechsler, D; Franke, M; Tariq, Q; Zhang, L; Lee, T-L; Thakur, PK; Tsud, N; Bercha, S; Prince, KC; Steinruck, H-P; Lytken, O
    Adsorption Structure of Cobalt Tetraphenylporphyrin on Ag(100)
    J. Phys. Chem. C 121 :  (8 pages), 2017.
    doi:10.1021/acs.jpcc.7b00518 (abstract link)  PDF ISI ID:000396969900024 BibTeX & \bibitem
  6. Bercha, S; Beranová, K; Acres, RG; Vorokhta, M; Dubau, M; Matolínová, I; Skála, T; Prince, KC; Matolín, V; Tsud, N
    Thermally Controlled Bonding of Adenine to Cerium Oxide: Effect of Substrate Stoichiometry, Morphology, Composition, and Molecular Deposition Technique
    J. Phys. Chem. C 121 :  (14 pages), 2017.
    doi:10.1021/acs.jpcc.7b06925 (abstract link)  PDF ISI ID:000416202900024 BibTeX & \bibitem
  7. Kondrat, O; Holomb, R; Mitsa, V; Veres, M; Tsud, N
    Structural investigation of As-Se chalcogenide thin films with different compositions: formation, characterization and peculiarities of volume and near-surface nanolayers
    Funct. Mater. 24 4 : Art. No. 554 (8 pages), 2017.
    doi:10.15407/fm24.04.547 (abstract link)  PDF ISI ID:000424496900007 BibTeX & \bibitem
  8. Neitzel, A; Kovács, G; Lykhach, Y; Kozlov, SM; Tsud, N; Skála, T; Vorokhta, M; Matolín, V; Neyman, KM; Libuda, J
    Atomic Ordering and Sn Segregation in Pt–Sn Nanoalloys Supported on CeO2 Thin Films
    Top. Catal. 60 :  (11 pages), 2017.
    doi:10.1007/s11244-016-0709-5 (abstract link)  PDF ISI ID:000403020800016 BibTeX & \bibitem

Year 2016

  1. Khalakhan, I; Vorokhta, M; Václavů, M; Šmíd, B; Lavková, J; Matolínová, I; Fiala, R; Tsud, N; Skála, T; Matolín, V
    In-situ electrochemical atomic force microscopy study of aging of magnetron sputtered Pt-Co nanoalloy thin films during accelerated degradation test
    Electrochim. Acta 211 :  (7 pages), 2016.
    doi:10.1016/j.electacta.2016.06.035 (abstract link)  PDF ISI ID:000380904100007 BibTeX & \bibitem
  2. Lykhach, Y; Kozlov, SM; Skala, T; Tovt, A; Stetsovych, V; Tsud, N; Dvorak, F; Johanek, V; Neitzel A; Myslivecek, J; Fabris, S; Matolin, V; Neyman, KM; Libuda, J
    Counting electrons on supported nanoparticles
    Nat. Mater. 15 :  (5 pages), 2016.
    doi:10.1038/nmat4500 (abstract link)  PDF ISI ID:000370967400012 BibTeX & \bibitem
  3. Neitzel, A; Johánek, V; Lykhach, Y; Skála, T; Tsud, N; Vorokhta, M; Matolín, V; Libuda, J
    Reduction of Pt2+ species in model Pt–CeO2 fuel cell catalysts upon reaction with methanol
    Appl. Surf. Sci. 387 :  (8 pages), 2016.
    doi:10.1016/j.apsusc.2016.06.156 (abstract link)  PDF ISI ID:000381251100083 BibTeX & \bibitem
  4. Stetsovych, V; Skála, T; Beran, J; Dvořák, F; Mazur, D; Tsud, N; Mašek, K; Mysliveček, J; Matolín, V
    Two-dimensional, high valence-doped ceria: Ce6WO12(100)/W(110)
    Appl. Surf. Sci. 372 :  (6 pages), 2016.
    doi:10.1016/j.apsusc.2016.03.050 (abstract link)  PDF ISI ID:000375053800021 BibTeX & \bibitem
  5. Bercha, S; Mali, G; Khalakhan, I; Skála, T; Prince, KC; Matolín, V; Tsud, N
    Histidine adsorption on nanostructured cerium oxide
    J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 212 :  (6 pages), 2016.
    doi:10.1016/j.elspec.2016.07.005 (abstract link)  PDF ISI ID:000387191800005 BibTeX & \bibitem
  6. Lykhach, Y; Figueroba, A; Camellone, MF; Neitzel, A; Skala, T; Negreiros, FR; Vorokhta, M; Tsud, N; Prince, KC; Fabris, S; Neyman, KM; Matolin, V; Libuda, J
    Reactivity of atomically dispersed Pt2+ species towards H2: model Pt–CeO2 fuel cell catalyst
    Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 18 :  (8 pages), 2016.
    doi:10.1039/C6CP00627B (abstract link)  PDF ISI ID:000372229700009 BibTeX & \bibitem
  7. Neitzel, A; Figueroba, A; Lykhach, Y; Skála, T; Vorokhta, M; Tsud, N; Mehl, S; Ševčíková, K; Prince, KC; Neyman, KM; Matolín, V; Libuda, J
    Atomically Dispersed Pd, Ni, and Pt Species in Ceria-Based Catalysts: Principal Differences in Stability and Reactivity
    J. Phys. Chem. C 120 :  (11 pages), 2016.
    doi:10.1021/acs.jpcc.6b02264 (abstract link)  PDF ISI ID:000375969000035 BibTeX & \bibitem
  8. Skála, T; Tsud, N; Stetsovych, V; Mysliveček, J; Matolín, V
    Growth of transition metals on cerium tungstate model catalyst layers
    J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 28 39 : Art. No. 395002 (6 pages), 2016.
    doi:10.1088/0953-8984/28/39/395002 (abstract link)  PDF ISI ID:000383803700005 BibTeX & \bibitem
  9. Vorokhta, M; Khalakhan, I; Vaclavu, M; Kovacs, G; Kozlov, SM; Kus, P; Skala, T; Tsud, N; Lavkova, J; Potin, V; Matolinova, I; Neyman, KM; Matolin, V
    Surface composition of magnetron sputtered Pt-Co thin film catalyst for proton exchange membrane fuel cells
    Appl. Surf. Sci. 365 :  (7 pages), 2016.
    doi:10.1016/j.apsusc.2016.01.004 (abstract link)  PDF ISI ID:000369960300032 BibTeX & \bibitem
  10. Kúš, P; Ostroverkh, A; Ševčíková, K; Khalakhan, I; Fiala, R; Skála, T; Tsud, N; Matolin, V
    Magnetron sputtered Ir thin film on TiC-based support sublayer as low-loading anode catalyst for proton exchange membrane water electrolysis
    Int. J. Hydrog. Energy 41 :  (9 pages), 2016.
    doi:10.1016/j.ijhydene.2016.06.248 (abstract link)  PDF ISI ID:000382793000002 BibTeX & \bibitem
  11. Monai, M; Montini, T; Melchionna, M; Duchoň, T; Kúš, P; Tsud, N; Prince, KC; Matolin, V; Gorte, RJ; Fornasiero, P
    Phosphorus poisoning during wet oxidation of methane over Pd@CeO2/graphite model catalysts
    Appl. Catal. B-Environ. 197 :  (9 pages), 2016.
    doi:10.1016/j.apcatb.2015.10.001 (abstract link)  PDF ISI ID:000381536500028 BibTeX & \bibitem
  12. Neitzel, A; Kovács, G; Lykhach, Y; Tsud, N; Kozlov, SM; Skála, T; Vorokhta, M; Matolín, V; Neyman, KM; Libuda, J
    Steering the formation of supported Pt–Sn nanoalloys by reactive metal–oxide interaction
    RSC Adv. 6 :  (10 pages), 2016.
    doi:10.1039/C6RA18801J (abstract link)  PDF ISI ID:000384322700002 BibTeX & \bibitem
  13. Ševčíková, K; Szabová, L; Kettner, M; Homola, P; Tsud, N; Fabris, S; Matolín, V; Nehasil, V
    Experimental and Theoretical Study on the Electronic Interaction between Rh Adatoms and CeOx Substrate in Dependence on a Degree of Cerium Oxide Reduction
    J. Phys. Chem. C 120 :  (9 pages), 2016.
    doi:10.1021/acs.jpcc.5b11431 (abstract link)  PDF ISI ID:000372561200022 BibTeX & \bibitem

Senior researcher, beamline scientist at the Czech beamline (MSB), Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste, Italy.

    

Scientific activities

Preparation and properties of nanostructures on surfaces have been in the centre of the research activities of Dr. Tsud for more than 20 years. Different routes to fabricate tailor-made nanoscale structures have been applied with the aim of understanding fundamental physicochemical surface processes at the atomic level. The main method is photoelectron spectroscopy using both laboratory and synchrotron-based state-of-the-art spectrometers, combined with diffraction techniques in vacuum and with ex situ substrate characterisation by microscopy probes (SEM, AFM, TEM).

Recently she started a research activity focused on investigation of phenomena and properties of planar nanosized metal and metal oxide systems with respect to interaction with bio and organic molecules. Research involves collaboration with groups all around the world, including close links with theoreticians, who provide greater insights into experimental data.

She is also responsible for looking after the experimental equipment of the Materials Science Beamline and carries out experimental work in collaboration with visiting researchers.

    

Scientific expertise

Photoelectron spectroscopy with laboratory sources and synchrotron radiation, low energy ion scattering spectroscopy, near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, low energy electron diffraction and surface crystallography, angle-resolved ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, resonant photoelectron spectroscopy, physics of synchrotron light and soft X-ray optics, electrochemistry. Operation and maintenance of vacuum systems (low, high and ultrahigh vacuum), computer control of instrumentation.